Forest play an important role in economic development and ecological stability.
Forest provide numerous services such as environmental and ecological stability
necessary for human sustenance. Forest are inevitable on earth for well being of
mankind. They are not just the green cover we need to make the earth look beautiful;
they have many functions integral for our survival and subsistence. They function
as a resource for many aspects of human life.With the development of civilization,
large areas have been cleared to make way for farm, mines, towns and roads. Uttar
Pradesh is the most populous State of India. Its northern part adjoins with Nepal
& Shiwalik. The boundaries of Uttar Pradesh touch Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan in
the West, Madhya Pradesh in the South and Bihar in the East. Geographically, Uttar
Pradesh is surrounded with Shiwalik mountain range of Himalays in the North. The
river Yamuna and the Vindhyan in the west and Gandak river in the east.
The State has typical variety of soil, which is arrival deep brown, loamy in certain
places, and mixed with sand. The soil is acidic, shallow and contains gravels and
stones. The western plains have fertile soil. Down the Pilibhit, some parts of soil
are acidic while rests contain alkaline properties.
Uttar Pradesh has forest and tree cover of 21720 sq. km, which is 9.01% of its geographical
area. The existing flora in Uttar Pradesh can be classified into three categories-
- Wet tropical desiduous forests.
- Dry tropical desiduous forests.
- Tropical throny forests.
Forest supply many products like wood, plywood, fuelwood and charcoal. Pulp and
paper are made from the cellulose of tree. Processed wood include plastics, synthetic
fibres like rayon and nylon. Rubber tree goes to make tyres and wide range of rubber
goods. Fruits, nuts and species are gathered from the forest. Many medicinal plants
such as camphor, cinchona and coca also come from forests. They provide a habitat
for many types of different animals and nesting places for animals, which reproduce.
Forests cool air temperature by release of water vapor into air. They helps in keeping
environment healthy and beautiful.Wild life of the state is its cultural asset.They
maintain ecological “balance of nature” and maintain food chain and nature cycle.
Most important contribution of wildlife for human progress is availability of large
genepool for scientists to carry breeding programmes in agriculture; animal husbandry
and fishery. They also provide employment to a large population engaged in their
protection, tending, harvesting and regeneration. Villages and tribal groups near
any forest area depend on forests for almost all aspects of life. The produce of
forests is often used for consumption by these local people.They help in soil and
water conservation, promoting rural economy, which largely depends upon agriculture.